(V) Fundamentals and Predictions of Cross Phenomena

Monday, September 13, 2021: 3:20 PM
222 (America's Center)
Prof. Zi-Kui Liu , Pennsylvania State University, University Pk, PA
Cross-phenomena, representing the internal responses of a system subject to external stimuli, are ubiquitous in every scale of materials from quantum to macro. Based on the combine law of thermodynamics, an internal process can be represented by the change of a molar quantity, driving by its conjugate potential gradient. When the change of this molar quantity modifies the value of another potential in the system, this will induce another internal process to change of the conjugate molar quantity of the second potential, resulting in the cross phenomena. One such an example is thermoelectricity where the heat conduction due to the temperature gradient induces the electron conduction through the temperature dependence of the chemical potential of electrons, which is commonly referred to as Seebeck effect. Consequently, the Seebeck coefficient is related to the derivative of electron chemical potential of electrons with respect to temperature and equals to the partial entropy of electrons (PRB 98, 224101; Scr. Mater. 169, 87). In the current presentation, fundamentals of cross phenomena will be discussed along with prediction of their coefficients for design and enhancement of properties related to cross phenomena (Acta Mater. 200, 745). This abstract is submitted for the symposium honoring John Agren for receiving the J. Willard Gibbs Phase Equilibria Award.